Macroseismology, felt report, felt intensity, web service
Figure 1. Map view of the felt report service. The left panel allow users to select felt events in time, in space, with magnitudes and by number of collected reports. The map facilitates spatial searches and plots the filtered events.
Within the SERA project, the EMSC has developed and maintained a service that provides access to the eyewitness data collected in real time by EMSC. People who feel an earthquake and want to share their experiencehave the opportunity to evaluate the level of shaking via EMSC’s services by selecting from a collection of thumbnail images (felt reports). Bossu et al. 2016 gives a complete description of this collection system. This approach using cartoons replaces the more traditional online questionnaire on our mobile application LastQuakeand on our mobile website (e.g. Bossu, et al., 2015). It is based on 12 thumbnail-sized images conceptualized by a professional cartoonist that aim to depict each level of the EMS-98 macroseismic scale in a culturally neutral way. These thumbnails are available to anyone who wants to integrate them in their collection system offering the chance to homogenizedata collection amongst institutes. In addition to the felt intensity, each felt report has an individual geographical locationeither provided by themobile device when the user has allowed it to be shared or estimated from a postal address given by the user.
Felt reports are collected in real time and associated to seismic events received by the EMSC. Moreover, due to the popularity of the EMSC, felt reports are collected from all continents and, generally, almost 50 % of felt reports are collected only 10 minutes after the earthquake occurrence.This service provides access to felt report data via a graphical user interface or via a web service (useful for scripting access). However, real time data is not available currently due to quality assurance concerns and a dedicated real-time service is under development for registered users.The popularity of felt report data is increasing and beginning to interest the scientific community. Several ongoing studies are trying to incorporate felt intensities in the construction of shakemaps and to constraint rupture models. This service is a valuable resource for such endeavours.
Bossu, R., Steed, R., Mazet-Roux, G., Roussel, F., Etivant, C., Frobert, L., Godey, S. The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid impact assessment of global earthquakes. (2015) Springer Natural Hazards, S. D’Amico (ed.) Earthquakes and Their Impact of Society 601-617
Thumbnail‐Based Questionnaires for the Rapid and Efficient Collection of Macroseismic Data from Global Earthquakes, Rémy Bossu, Matthieu Landès, Fréderic Roussel, Robert Steed, Gilles Mazet-Roux, Stacey S.Martin, and Susan Hough. Seismological Research Letter. Oct 2016. doi: 10.1785/0220160120
Federated infrastructure services for seismic waveform data in Europe
Figure 1. Overview of service provisioning through VA2. Top-left: Federation of European Data Archives (EIDA) providing transparent, standardized access to seismological waveform data collected and curated by (currently) 12 large European archives; Top-right: snapshot of seismic stations in Europe accessible through EIDA; Bottom-left: access to and status of all web services in EIDA, including the recently launched Federator; Bottom-right: global impact of services provided by VA2 for ORFEUS EIDA.
The ORFEUS infrastructure is one of the biggest infrastructures in the world that provides seismological data. Furthermore, it derives products to the scientific research community in strong collaboration with European seismological observatories. The infrastructure is organized as a networked system of observatory infrastructures, waveform data archives and services. A key component is the federated, distributed European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) that transparently connects a number of large data centers in Europe, including the ORFEUS Data Center.
This unique, federated archive serves seismological waveform data from permanent and temporary networks of broad-band sensors and strong motion sensors deployed in Europe and beyond through dedicated, standardized webservices. Currently, EIDA holds beyond 400 TB of data of 107 permanent networks and 190 temporary networks, with more than 11’000 seismic stations in total. ORFEUS EIDA is technically compatible with the EPOS infrastructure and therefore ready to accommodate other types of data to serve a broader solid Earth user community (e.g. earthquake engineering).
The following services are offered to the (seismological) research community to provide (virtual) access to raw waveform data and related metadata:
Open-access data, infrastructures, European Strong Motion Database, European Archive of Historical Earthquake Data, European Database of Seismogenic Faults
An easier way to get hold of strong-motion records, macroseismic data and seismogenic fault data
Figure 1. Map view of data provisioning through VA3: recording stations (ESM), historical earthquakes (AHEAD), and seismogenic sources (EDSF).
A fundamental task for engineering seismologists is to access the information behind seismic hazard and risk models. In the past decades, the amount of open-access data has dramatically increased due to the advances in information technology and in the development of infrastructures to host data and promote their interoperability. As consequence, there is a significant improvement of dedicated thematic repositories and of tools that facilitate the user to access data and services.
SERA-VA3 aims to bring the data at the users’ fingertips. It offers access to reliable and extensive data sets and services for the community of engineering seismologist as well as other specialists. They include the European Strong Motion Database (ESM), the European Archive of Historical Earthquake Data (AHEAD), and the European Database of Seismogenic Faults (EDSF).
A web portal works as a unified access point to data and services. This portal not only guides the visitors to the three original database portals, but it is also meant to provide an enhanced navigation through the data. The three services are technically compatible with the EPOS infrastructure and therefore ready to accommodate other types of data to serve a wider solid Earth user community, for example earthquake engineering.
Earthquake hazard, earthquake risk, seismic hazard, seismic risk, European Seismic Hazard Model (ESHM20), European Seismic Risk Model (ESRM20), web-platform, European Facilities of Earthquake Hazard and Risk (EFEHR)
The web platform of European Facilities for Earthquake Hazard and Risk (www.efehr.org)
Figure 1. EFEHR web-portal: main web-interfaces to access the hazard curves (top left), uniform hazard spectra (top right), hazard maps (bottom left) and hazard disaggregation (bottom right)
The web platform of European Facilities of Eartqhauke Hazard and Risk (EFEHR) provides access to specialized datasets, input models, results, documentation and information. Within SERA VA4 activities, the web-platform has been further developed and upgraded, from web-content to web-viewers (i.e. hazard curves, maps and uniform hazard spectra). The web-services metadata has been upgraded to meet the EPOS-ICS requirements ensuring access in a fully discoverable, searching metadata environment of the EPOS main services. Model Development Tools (MDTs) and components for building and running the hazard models with OpenQuake are also provided. The web-traffic analytics of the EFEHR web-portal indicates a preference for users to access the hazard maps and uniform hazard spectra. The visitors are distributed worldwide. Oftenly, the visitors are consulting the hazard values at a specific site, rather than downloading entire sets of results and/or models. The hazard map viewer is the most used web application. Especially, after a destructive earthquake in the Euro-Mediterranean region occured, e.g. the 2019 M6.4 earthquake in Albania, the traffic of the web application increases shortly after the occurrence of an earthquake. The EFEHR data and models are collected and stored from completed scientific projects for long-term archiving, documentation, accessibility and use in research, support decision making and mitigation actions.
Induced seismicity, anthropogenic hazards, comprehensive datasets on anthropogenic seismicity, EPOS Thematic Core Service Anthropogenic Hazards, IS-EPOS Platform
Virtual access to the data and applications of anthropogenic seismicity and related hazards
Figure 1. Background: map of global user logins. This map demonstrates the global usage of the IS-EPOS platform that integrates research infrastructure of EPOS TCS AH. Foreground: example of what is possible to do with the platform. Figure shows a 3D sketch of induced seismicity distribution in Bobrek Coal Mine, Poland.
Within the framework of Virtual Access (VA5) of WP22 in the SERA project, we are providing 19 new episodes of anthropogenic hazards. In total, 25 episodes from 10 different countries are openly available. These are up to now nine episodes more than originally planned. An episode of anthropogenic seismicity contains seismological catalogues, event based or continuous waveforms of seismic signals, technological data on seismicity inducing industrial activities, geological and tectonic settings, and information on environment. This facilitates research aiming at understanding the interactions between the parameters of the industrial activities and the anthropogenic seismicity. The virtual access gives researchers and other interested or concerned groups in society a chance to gain information on detailed knowledge. The number of registered users of IS-EPOS platform is 1094.